A significant place in Greek mythology was occupied by legends about heroes – children of gods and mortals.

It can be conducted even by a woman, because Sikhism proclaims and implements the equality of man and woman.

Pre-dawn communal in the temple is one of the most sacred Sikh prayer. With a common prayer in the temple, the Sikhs welcome the coming of a new day, thank the Lord for a peaceful night and ask for His blessing on the day’s work.

During the day, after the obligatory prayers, ardas is almost always performed. This kind of common prayer of the Sikh community, which contains elements of the sermon, is conducted in all significant cases in the life of the community or its individual representative. In many cases, holding an ardas at the request of a Sikh or his family marks important moments and transition points of a person’s life path.

Varanasi – a city, death and burning in which gives the Hindu some benefits in future life. Incineration is carried out in a crematorium located on the shore. The crematorium also owns 3 hotels where people who have come to die live to their old age. Burning is a complex rite that includes washing, mourning, reciting prayers, actually burning and scattering the ashes over the Ganges, not completely burned, just thrown in the middle of the river with a load tied to his feet. And yet people bathe in the Ganges, wash, wash clothes, drink water and take water with them, believing that "the Ganges is a clean river. Dirt is dirty."

Sources

1. Pandey RB Ancient Indian household rites (customs): Per. from English AA, Vigasina. – 2nd publishing house – M.: Higher. school, 1990 .– 319 p. – Translated by: R. St. Pandey. Hindu Samskaras. India, Delhi, 1976.

2. Livanova AI Meeting with India. –Minsk 1999. –115p.

3.http: // indonet. ru /

23.06.2012

Fine arts and architecture of Byzantine culture. Abstract

The abstract provides information about Byzantine culture. In particular, fine arts and architecture are considered

Economic and political schedule of the Roman Empire III-IV centuries. The Christian era led to the cultural (and in particular artistic) depersonalization of the peoples included in its composition, some of which are glorious with a great cultural past. Hellenistic art, which had no internal unity even in the heyday of its heyday, split into several original local art schools: Coptic (Egypt), Sassanid (Persia), Syrian, and so on. There was a division into the Greek East and the Latin West.

The art of the Greek East in historical literature is called "Byzantine". The commonality of Hellenistic foundations in style and the commonality of Christian ideology led to significant similarities in plots, forms and techniques of individual branches of medieval art and made the boundaries between them not very sharply delineated: often monuments of "Romanesque" culture (France, Spain and Italy) were recognized. Byzantine "and vice versa.

The highest achievement of Roman Hellenistic art – the Church of St. Sophia (532-537) – a huge and at the same time deeply integral structure, the most significant monument of Byzantine architecture. It was built by Anfimius of Troy and Isidore of Ticket.

From the VII century. begins a new cycle of historical development, the first phases of which are denoted by the concept of "Byzantine art". Antiquity gave a powerful impetus to independent Western development and gave Western artists the opportunity to move far forward. In Byzantium, on the other hand, the ancient tradition was never interrupted and became a heavy chain that chained Byzantine art to the outdated past.

VII century. determined by the peculiarities of the development of Byzantine art: it marked the end of the late antique period in culture and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

It is a difficult time for Byzantium: the Arabs become masters of the whole East and threaten the capital of Byzantium, Italy falls under the rule of the Lombards; Slavs capture the Balkans, the class struggle within the empire intensifies.

The struggle in the field of art reflects the socio-political struggle of the emperor with the church; the gap between the declining imperial and the art of the peasant-bourgeois masses in the VIII century. and in the first half of the ninth century. takes the form of iconoclasm. Icons banned by the imperial authorities as pagan idols and distributed by monks as shrines became the center of a political struggle, cruel and often bloody.

This struggle ended in the middle of the ninth century. the victory of icon-worshipers and the extraordinary strengthening of Syrian and Palestinian influence. Immediately after this period under Vasily I (836-886) comes the heyday of Byzantine art, which was reflected in the formation of a canonical new architectural type. The heyday of Byzantine art in the second half of the ninth century. it is impossible not to recognize the end of the iconoclast period, or, more precisely, the early Byzantine phase of the history of Byzantine art.

In the revolutions of the second half of the twelfth century. and in the coups of the "Latin invasion" (1204-1261) the so-called art of the Palaeologus era was born, the art of the late Byzantine "third heyday" which is similar in time and style to Western Gothic art. Late Byzantine art ceased to exist with the demise of Byzantine statehood (1453).

Late Byzantine art created a number of cycles of stories, using as thematic material not only the stories of the New Testament, but also other sacred and apocryphal writings, the lives of saints and more. There is evidence of the birth of epic secular painting.

Ancient cities of Byzantine orientation became the ancient cities of Ukraine and Russia: Chernihiv, Kyiv, Novgorod, Vladimir. Kyiv monks-chroniclers took all the Byzantine culture planted in Russia directly from Constantinople itself and pointed to Chersonesos as a transit point.

literature

Znoyko OP Myths of the Kyiv land and ancient events. – Kyiv: Youth, 1989 .– 304 pp. History of world culture. Cultural regions: Textbook. manual / Ed. LT Levchuk. – Kyiv: Lybid, 1997 .– 448 pp. History of world culture: Textbook. manual / Head. aut. to the team of LT Levchuk. – K.: Lybid, 1993 .– 320 p. History of world culture: Textbook. manual / Head. aut. to the team of LT Levchuk. – 2nd ed., Reworked. and ext. – K.: Libid, 1999. – 368 pp. History of Arts: Textbook. allowance / Ed. A. Vorotnikov. – Minsk: Contemporary writer, 1999. – 608 pp. History of Ukrainian culture / Zag. ed. I. Krypyakevych. – K.: Libid, 1994. – 656 p. Kachanovsky V. V. History of Western Europe: Textbook. allowance. – Mn.: IP Ecoperspektiva, 1998. – 190 p. Kachkal V.A. Ukrainian folklore in names: Navch. manual. At 2 p.m. Part 2. – Kyiv: Lybid, 1995 .– 288 pp. Kryzhanivsky OP History of the Ancient East: Course of lectures. – К.: Libid, 1996 .– 480 p.

23.06.2012

Culture of Ancient Greece. Abstract

Societies of ancient Greece and Rome (from the IX century BC to the V century AD) historians call the ancient world ("ancient" from the Latin antiquus – "ancient")

At the turn of III-II millennium BC. The islands and coasts of the Aegean Sea became the scene of the development of peculiar cultures. The island of Crete and the city of Mycenae in the northeastern part of the Peloponnese were especially distinguished. Archaeological excavations by Arthur Evans and Heinrich Schliemann at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries opened the Cretan-Mycenaean civilization.

On the island of Crete there were several independent cities (Knossos, Fest, Tilis, etc.), in which from the II millennium BC. the first palaces of Cretan culture appear. They were distinguished from the eastern palaces 123helpme.me by their complex interior planning combined with comfort ("Cretan labyrinths"), a system of special ventilation, water supply, and highly artistic wall paintings. No temples were built in Crete, and altars near palaces or in "sacred groves" were used for religious ceremonies.

At the end of the XV century. BC Cretan palaces destroyed the barbarian tribes of the Achaeans and since then a new cultural center is rising – the Achaean city of Mycenae.

Mycenaean culture reached its highest development in the XVI-XIII centuries. BC She borrowed many Cretan achievements: linear writing, the technique of vase painting and wall painting, the peculiarities of religious worship. However, Mycenaean culture differed from Cretan. The palaces of the cities looked like monumental structures protected by strong stone walls of "cyclopean" masonry. The central hall of the palace with the sacred fire (megaron) is considered a prototype of Greek temples. Monumentality is also characteristic of Mycenaean sculpture. These are the famous Lion’s Gate in Mycenae, the golden tombs of kings and others. In the XII century. BC Mycenaean civilization ended its existence under the blows of the Dorians. It has become a link between the cultures of ancient Eastern civilizations and the culture of the ancient world.

After a short period of "dark ages" in Greece begins the revival of culture. From the scattered tribes arises a single Greek nation. Homer’s poems The Iliad and The Odyssey are considered historical evidence of these processes (hence this period is called the heroic Homeric). These are well-known stories about the events of the Trojan War and the return of Odysseus to Ithaca. The ancient Greek epic was closely associated with mythology and widespread religious beliefs, which are characterized by the existence of polytheism. Gradually formed a kind of mythological worldview, which traces the transition from the worship of animals and plants to anthropomorphism (deification of man, the representation of the gods in the image of beautiful and immortal people).

The main Olympic gods included:

Zeus – the god of thunder, his wife Hera – the goddess of heaven, Poseidon – the god of the seas and rivers, Hades – the god of the kingdom of the dead, Demeter – the patroness of agriculture, Athena – the goddess of war and wisdom, Apollo – the god of light and art, Dionysus – the god of winemaking, Artemis – the goddess of hunting, Hephaestus – the god of crafts.

A significant place in Greek mythology was occupied by legends about heroes – children of gods and mortals. Mythology became the most important element of Greek culture, on the basis of which later developed literature, philosophy, science.

The beginning of the formation of cultural features of the new ancient type in Greece dates back to the VIII century. BC The defining features of the archaic period were the emergence of early class state forms, the revision of the entire traditional system of values. At this time, a specific form of statehood emerged – the polis (city-state), which became a political, military and religious center.