Mental illness, changing the components of memory, in different ways destroys mnestic processes

the ability to see the shortcomings in the actions of others – critical; 5.psychological tact – the ability to establish a measure of influence; 6.the general level of development as an indicator of intelligence, the difference in the general sensory abilities of man; 7.genius – creative and executive; 8. demanding of other people; 9.propensity for organizational activities; 10.practicality – the ability to directly, quickly and flexibly apply their knowledge and experience in solving practical problems; 11. independence in contrast to suggestibility; 12. observation; 13. self-control, endurance; 14. sociability; 15. persistence; 16.activity; 17.working capacity; 18.organization.

Organizational skills are manifested in the ability to organize themselves, their time, individual, group, collective activities of students, uniting around the scientific problem of reliable assistants, like-minded people.

Doctors of sciences, as research shows, are better than others able to organize the study of research objects, publication of results, individual scientific work of students, their time, themselves.

Candidates of science are well able to organize the collective research work of students, to establish mutual control, to criticize and evaluate the results of research, to develop mutual exchange of scientific information and experience of science.

Teachers without degrees are able to organize the study of objects, observations, seek mutual exchange of scientific information, willingly involved in comprehensive research.

Communicative component

Communication in the activities of the teacher is not only a means of scientific and pedagogical communication, but also a condition for improving professionalism in the activities and a source of development of the teacher’s personality, as well as a means of educating students.

Communicative abilities include:

ability to comprehensively and objectively perceive a partner in communication; the ability to inspire confidence in him, empathy in joint activities; ability to anticipate and eliminate conflicts; fairly, constructively and tactfully criticize your teammate; perceive and take into account criticism, restructuring their behavior and activities accordingly.

The main means of communication is oral and written language. In scientific activity, in contrast to teaching, plays a major role compared to oral. Objectification of the results of scientific knowledge is carried out, as a rule, first in writing – in the process of scientific communication.

Oral presentation of research results in a competent audience is a necessary means of verifying the value, objectivity and provability of research results. It is interesting to note that the communicative component of abilities – the most flexible, communicative skills with age move towards regression.

Perceptual-reflexive component

This component of abilities is closely related to the communicative, it is addressed to the subject of pedagogical influence. Reflection – the awareness of the acting individual of how he is perceived by a communication partner, implies knowledge of how the other understands the reflector.

Reflection – a kind of double process of mirror reflection of individuals by each other, in which the reflector reproduces the inner world of the interlocutor and with the reflection of himself. Perceptual-reflexive abilities include three types of sensitivity.

1. Sense of the object. It is a special sensitivity of the teacher to what response the objects of reality find in students, the extent to which the interests and needs of students are manifested in this case, "coincide" with the requirements of the pedagogical system on the one hand, with what they show in educational process the teacher himself. This sensitivity is similar to empathy and is manifested in a quick, easy and deep penetration into the psychology of students, in the emotional identification of the teacher with the student and their active purposeful joint activities.

2. Sense of moderation and tact. Manifested in a special sensitivity to the extent of changes that occur in the personality and activities of the student under the influence of various means of pedagogical influence, what changes occur, whether positive or negative, on what grounds they can be judged.

3. Sense of involvement. It is characterized by the teacher’s sensitivity to the shortcomings of their own activities, critical thinking and responsibility for the pedagogical and scientific process. These are the main components of a teacher’s professional abilities. All of them are interdependent and form a single whole, affect the creative personality and style of a teacher of higher education.


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Pathopsychology: impaired indirect memory. Abstract

Mental illness, changing the components of memory, in different ways destroys mnestic processes

The works of Soviet psychologists show that memory is a complex organized activity that depends on many factors, the level of cognitive processes, motivation, and dynamic components (LS Vygotsky, AN Leont’ev, PI Zinchenko, and others). … Therefore, it was expected that mental illness, changing these components, in different ways destroys mnestic processes. While the introduction of mediation surgery improves the memory of healthy people, in some patients the mediation factor becomes an obstacle. This fact was first described in 1934 by GV Birenbaum. Examining patients of different nosological groups using the icon method, she showed that patients lose the ability to remember.

As you know, this method, proposed by AR Luria, is as follows. The subject must memorize 14 words. For better memorization, he should come up with and sketch on paper something that could further reproduce the proposed words. No entries or marks are allowed. Subjects are warned that the quality of their drawing does not matter. Similarly, the time of this task is not taken into account.

Tasks by the icon method can be performed in two ways. The first is that the image is a symbol of the concept enclosed in the word. For example, to memorize the word "develop" you can draw any small or large figure (square, circle) for the word "doubt" – a question mark. This technique is easy to resort to if the subjects have a sufficient level of education.

In the second method of performing the task, the concept is conventionally depicted, less general in comparison with the given; the first should serve as a symbol for the second. For example, the same word "development" can be represented by a narrower meaning than "industrial development", "mental development", "physical development", etc. The image of any object associated with such a less general concept, (factories, a book, a sports projectile), can play the role of a sign that symbolizes the concept of "development".

Thus, the task requires the ability to relate the concept denoted by the word, with each specific concept, and this is possible only when the subject can turn away from a variety of specific meanings containing the concept denoted by a given word, when he can slow down all fractions of the value associated with it. In other words, the implementation of this task is possible at a certain level of generalization and distraction, allows us to judge the degree of generalization and content of the formed test relationships.

As a rule, healthy subjects, even with incomplete secondary education, easily perform the task. Even in cases where it causes known difficulties, it is sufficient to give an example of how it can be performed so that the subjects correctly solve the proposed problem.

GV Birenbaum, who studied with this method of violation of concepts in the mentally ill, pointed out the main difficulties of intellectual operation in performing the task by the method of icons: the range of meanings of the word is wider than the one that can denote the picture.

However, the meaning of the picture is broader than the meaning of the word, the meaning of the picture and the word should coincide only in some part. It is in this ability to capture the general in the picture and the word is the main mechanism of active formation of conditional meaning. And although this mediation operation is performed quite easily, even by healthy adolescents, with pathological changes in thinking, the creation of such conditional connections is difficult.